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Adrian Nelson
Adrian Nelson

Amaranthus Spinosus LINK



Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth,[2] spiny pigweed, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth, is a plant that is native to the tropical Americas, but is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed.[citation needed] It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia.[3]




amaranthus spinosus


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In the folk medicine of India, the ash of fruits of Amaranthus spinosus is used for jaundice.[7][medical citation needed] Water extracts from its roots and leaves have been used as a diuretic in Vietnam.[8][medical citation needed]


Introduction: Depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects including cardiac toxicity, hypopiesia, sexual dysfunction, body weight gain, and sleep disorder. During the last decade, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic effects of natural products on mental disorders. Amaranthus spinosus was investigation for antidepressant activity.


Methods: Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (MEAS) was investigated by using Forced swimming test (FST) and Tail suspension test (TST) models. Escitalopram and Imipramine were used as reference standards.


Spiny amaranth, thorny amaranth Plants glabrous or sparsely pubescent in the distal younger parts of stems and branches. Stems erect or sometimes ascending proximally, much-branched and bushy, rarely nearly simple, 0.3-1(-2) m; each node with paired, divergent spines (modified bracts) to 1.5(-2.5) cm. Leaves: petiole equaling or longer than blade; blade rhombic-ovate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 3-10(-15) 1.5-6 cm, base broadly cuneate, margins entire, plane or slightly undulate, apex acute or subobtuse to indistinctly emarginate, mucronulate. Inflorescences simple or compound terminal staminate spikes and axillary subglobose mostly pistillate clusters, erect or with reflexed or nodding tips, usually green to silvery green. Bracts of pistillate flowers lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, shorter than tepals, apex attenuate. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, obovate-lanceolate or spatulate-lanceolate, equal or subequal, 1.2-2 mm, apex mucronate or short-aristate; styles erect or spreading; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers: often terminal or in proximal glomerules; tepals 5, equal or subequal, 1.7-2.5 mm; stamens 5. Utricles ovoid to subglobose, 1.5-2.5 mm, membranaceous proximally, wrinkled and spongy or inflated distally, irregularly dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds black, lenticular or subglobose-lenticular, 0.7-1 mm diam., smooth, shiny.Flowering summer-fall. Waste places, fields, roadsides, railroads, barnyards, overgrazed pastures, other disturbed habitats; 0-700 m; introduced; Man., Ont.; Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; introduced nearly worldwide.Amaranthus spinosus is native to lowlands in tropical America; at present it is a pantropical weed that also occurs in some warm-temperate regions.Amaranthus spinosus, or its ancestral taxon, probably gave rise to the allopolyploid A. dubius by hybridization with some species of the A. hybridus aggregate (see above). Section Centrusa probably occupies a basal position, at least for the clade of subg. Amaranthus sect. Amaranthus, and probably for some representatives of subg. Acnida as currently outlined. Recent results of sequencing the ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 15 species of Amaranthus occurring in China also suggest the basal position of A. spinosus among the studied species (Song B. H. et al. 2000). These results also confirm a profound divergence between subgenera Amaranthus and Albersia; the latter is called "sect. Paucestamen" by the above authors. Data on the electrophoretic variation of seed proteins (R. H. Sammour et al. 1993) are also in accord with the segregation of these two subgenera; in the cited article, these groups are called sect. Amaranthus and sect. Blitopsis.


The leaves and stems of Amaranthus spinosus are eaten raw or cooked as a spinach. Remove the spines in older plants. Seed are easy to harvest and very nutritious. A native of tropical America and is found mainly in warm areas. Common names include: calaloo; needle burr; pigweed; prickly calaloo; prickly callau; prickly caterpillar; spiny amaranthus; spiny calaloo; spiny pigweed; sticker weed; thorny pigweed; wild callau. Spanish: bledo de espina; quelite espinoso. French: amarante épineuse; blette épineuse; brèche de Malabar; epinard malabre. Chinese: tsz-hsien.


chennai I'm heleena .I doing project work in Amaranthas spinosus plant extract induced in STZ induced diabetic rats. kindly help to give the detailed report in this plant and also give the Sangameswaran and jeyakar 2007 paper.plz give me the reports and paper immediately.Thanking you sir.


Hi, Your website is very helpful and informative. Amaranthus spinosus is an edible weed in the Philippines and you can find it in the market specially in the southern Philippines. I am researching on other economic and pharmaceutical importance of this weed. The ideas i got from your website helped me lot in determining which areas have not been explored yet. Please post more information regarding this plant in the future as guide for those who want to investigate more regarding this species.Thanks a lot.


Amaranthus spinosus is a common vegetable of Bangladesh and well-known for its ethnomedicinal uses. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of powdered supplementation, methanol extract, and aqueous extract of A. spinosus in attenuating in high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic disorders in female obese rates. Several parameters have been analyzed in this study including body weight, organ weight, fat deposition, glycemic status, lipid levels, hepatic and renal biomarkers, hepatic antioxidant status, and hepatosteatosis. All three samples of A. spinosus significantly reduced weight gain, organ weight, and abdominal fat deposition. Improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters were seen in obese rats administered with A. spinosus powder, methanol extract, and aqueous extract. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatine kinase levels were normalized by the test samples. A. spinosus boosted hepatic antioxidant levels including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Histopathology of liver tissue revealed increased fat infiltration and higher steatosis score in HCHF diet-fed obese rats which was brought down by A. spinosus. Analyzing all the results it can be concluded that this medicinal herb is beneficial in the management of obesity and obesity-induced metabolic disorders, making it a prospective food supplement.


Figure 2. Effect of Amaranthus spinosus on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (A) OGTT at the start of the study, (B) OGTT at the end of the study, (C) OGTT AUC at the start of the study, and (D) OGTT AUC at the end of the study. Values are presented as mean SD, where n = 5. bp p


Figure 4. Effect of Amaranthus spinosus on serum (A) Alanine transaminase (ALT), (B) aspartate transaminase (AST), (C) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and (D) creatine kinase levels in HCHF diet-induced obese rats. Values are presented as mean SD, where n = 5. ap p p


Figure 5. Effect of Amaranthus spinosus on liver tissue (A) reduced glutathione (GSH) level, (B) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, (C) catalase (CAT) activity, and (D) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme level of HCHF diet-induced obese rats. Values are presented as mean SD, where n = 5. bp p p


Figure 6. Liver sections from (A) control group, (B) HCHF diet group, (C) HCHF + Atorvastatin group, (D) HCHF + Amaranthus spinosus powder group, (E) HCHF +Amaranthus spinosus MeOH extract group, and (F) HCHF +Amaranthus spinosus Aq. extract group. Arrows indicate fat infiltration. Magnification is 40. (G) Scores of steatosis among different treatment groups. Values are presented as mean SD, where n = 15. bp p


Citation: Prince MRU, Zihad SMNK, Ghosh P, Sifat N, Rouf R, Al Shajib GM, Alam MA, Shilpi JA and Uddin SJ (2021) Amaranthus spinosus Attenuated Obesity-Induced Metabolic Disorders in High-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Rats. Front. Nutr. 8:653918. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.653918


List of species Amaranthus albus Amaranthus arenicola Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthus blitum subsp. emarginatus Amaranthus californicus Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthus deflexus Amaranthus fimbriatus Amaranthus hybridus Amaranthus hypochondriacus Amaranthus palmeri Amaranthus powellii Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthus torreyi Amaranthus tuberculatus var. rudis Amaranthus viridis Amaranthus watsonii 041b061a72


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